Egyptology, the study of pharaonic Egypt, spanning the period c. 4500 BCE to CE 641. Egyptology began when the scholars accompanying Napoleon Bonaparte’s invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) published Description de l’Égypte (1809–28), which made large quantities of source material about ancient Egypt available to Europeans. For a discussion of the long-standing fascination with ancient Egypt, see Sidebar: Egyptomania.
Written Egyptian documents date to c. 3150 BCE, when the first pharaohs developed the hieroglyphic script in Upper Egypt. The documents of these kings, their successors, and their subjects, as well as the archaeological material of their culture, well preserved by Egypt’s arid climate, provide the source material for Egyptological study.
EGYPT at a Glance
|Exchange Rate||1 EGP = 4.32 NPR|
|Area||1,001,450 Square Kilometer|